The journal (print)
is indexed in:

Russian Science Citation Index

Ulrichs Periodicals Directory



The online version
is indexed in:

Russian Science Citation Index

Orphus system
Main page / "Knowledge. Understanding. Skill" Journal / Contents / 2014 / No. 2

Bobyleva N. I., Eseeva O. V. The Semiotics of "WolfDogHuman" Relations and Their Reflection in the Cultures Texts

(Northern (Arctic) Federal University, Arkhangelsk)

Abstract ◊ The images of the wolf and the dog cause strong emotions among people. These emotions are based on physical sensations of fear, joy or indifference. The work objective is to study the socio-cultural antagonism of the familiar images of the wolf and the dog, its reasons and consequences.

The article presents an extensive historiographical review of this issue in Russian literature. Writers and hunters S. T. Aksakov and L. P. Sabaneev were the first who dedicated their works to wolves in Russian. In the 20th century, I. P. Pavlov, L. V. Krushinskiy, N. N. Ladygina-Kots, K. E. Fabri studied dog behaviour and monographs about the wolf were published (e.g. by D. I. Bibikova, M. P. Pavlova, Ya. K. Badridze). The USSR witnessed the time of the development of applied cynology (A. P. Mazover, E. I. Shereshevskiy, A. T. and S. D. Voilochnikovs). Translations of international popular science and fiction books about wolves and dogs were published (E. Thompson Seton, K. Lorenz, F. Mowat, B. Grzimek, J. Herriot, G. Durrell, J. Marek, K. Pryor). In modern Russia the contemporary culturological school of thought is represented with works by Z. P. Sokolova, V. Yu. Mikhailina, M. F. Kosareva, etc. A review of major Russian literature pointed to the fact that biological, ethnographic, linguistic research was prevailing. It revealed the deficit of national social and anthropological studies.

Wild wolves (Canis lupus) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) are biological relatives and cultural opposites at the same time. The wolf has always been seen as an enemy, the dog — as a friend. At present, the wolf and the dog have swapped the social roles. In the second half of the 20th century, the wolf needs protection; animal protectors write and speak about the wolf genocide. At the same time, the most interesting cultural process has started in the contemporary world: a fashion for wolves. Humans take interest in the cross-breeding of dogs and wolves (wolf-dog hybrids such as Saarloos wolfdog, Ceskoslovenský Vlciak, Lupo italiano). Furthermore, packs of stray dogs have become a real danger for Russian cities in the 21st century.

The article states that the familiar images of the wolf and the dog are in a social conflict now. There is the phenomenon of “domestic” wolves and wild dogs.

Keywords: cultural image, wild animal, pet, wolf, dog, social conflict.

Bobyleva Nadezhda Igorevna, Candidate of Science (biology), associate professor, associate professor of the Department of Social Work and Social Security, the Integrated Safety Institute, Lomonosov Northern (Arctic) Federal University. Postal address: 8 Kutuzov St., Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation, 163012. Tel.: +7 (902) 195-94-48. E-mail:

Eseeva Olga Vladimirovna, Candidate of Science (history), associate professor, associate professor of the Department of Social Work and Social Security, the Integrated Safety Institute, Lomonosov Northern (Arctic) Federal University. Postal address: 8 Kutuzov St., Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation, 163012. Tel.: +7 (921) 480-59-01. E-mail:


Citation: Bobyleva N. I., Eseeva O. V. The Semiotics of "WolfDogHuman" Relations and Their Reflection in the Culture’s Texts // Znanie. Ponimanie. Umenie. 2014. 2. S. 91–101.



Aksakov, S. T. (1987) Zapiski ruzheinogo okhotnika Orenburgskoi gubernii [Gun Hunter's Notes of Orenburg Region]. Moscow, Sovetskaia Rossiia Publ. 528 p. (In Russ.).

Badridze, Ya. K. (1997) Reintroduktsiia v prirodu vyrashchennykh v nevole krupnykh khishchnykh mlekopitaiushchikh. Problema i metod [Reintroduction of Hand-reared Large Carnivorous Mammals into Nature. The Problem and Method] : diss. … Doctor of Science (biology). Moscow. 147 p. (In Russ.).

Boreiko, V. E. Genotsid volkov i ikh zashchita v Rossii, Belarusi i Ukraine [The Genocide of Wolves and Their Protection in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine]. Tsentr zashchity prav zhivotnykh «Vita». [online] Available at: [archived in] (accessed 14.04.2013). (In Russ.).

Voilochnikov, A. T. and Voilochnikova, S. D. (1982) Okhotnich'i laiki [Hunting Huskies]. Moscw, Lesnaia promyshlennost' Publ. 256 p. (In Russ.).

Volk. Proiskhozhdenie, sistematika, morfologiia, ekologiia [The Wolf. History, Systematics, Morphology, Ecology] (1985) / ed. by D. I. Bibikov. Moscow, Nauka Publ. 609 p. (In Russ.).

Grzhimek, B. (1993) Zhivotnye zhizn' moia. 50 let: Sobytiia i issledovaniia [Animals are My Life. 50 years: Events and Research]. Moscow, Mysl' Publ. 398 p. (In Russ.).

Gusev, V. G. and Guseva, E. S. (2006) Kinologiia : posobie dlia ekspertov i vladel'tsev plemennykh sobak [Cynology: A Guide for Experts and Owners of Pedigree Dogs]. Moscow, Akvarium-Print Publ. 232 p. (In Russ.).

Durrell, G. (1986) Moia sem'ia i drugie zveri [My Family and Other Animals]. Moscow, Mir Publ. 478 p. (In Russ.).

Ivushkina, N. V. (2012) Kontsept sobaka v angliiskom i russkom iazykakh s lingvokul'turologicheskoi tochki zreniia [The Concept of Dog in the English and Russian Languages from Linguo-culturological Viewpoint]. Filologicheskie nauki. Voprosy teorii i praktiki, no. 4, pp. 6467. (In Russ.).

Kasimov, V. M., Khoroshilov, I. A., Dorofeev, V. S. and Teben'kova, O. A. (2006) Eksperiment s gibridami volka i sobaki v Permskom voennom institute (PVI), ili Ural'skie volkosoby [An Experiment with Hybrids of Wolf and Dog in the Perm Military Institute, or Ural Wolfdogs]. Shkola dressirovki i adzhiliti [online] Available at: [archived in WebCite] (accessed 14.04.2013). (In Russ.).

Kinologiia [Cynology] (2001) : A Study Guide / G. I. Blokhin, M. Yu. Gladkikh, A. A. Ivanov, B. R. Ovsishcher, M. V. Sidorova. Moscow, Izdatel'stvo Skriptorii 2000 LLC. 285 p. (In Russ.).

Klsov, A. A. and Tiuniaev, A. A. (2010). Proiskhozhdenie cheloveka po dannym arheologii, antropologii i DNK-genealogii [The Origin of Human Being according to Archaeology, Anthropology and DNA Genealogy]. Moscow, Bely al'vy Publ. 1024 p.

Koppinger, L. and Koppinger, R. (2005) Sobaki. Novyj vzgliad na proiskozhdenie, povedenie i evoliusiiu sobak [Dogs. A New Look at the Origin, Behaviour and Evolution of Dogs]. Moscow, Sofion Publ. 388 p. (In Russ.).

Korneev, L. A. (1989) Slovo o sobake [A Word about the Dog]. Moscow, Mysl' Publ. 253 p. (In Russ.).

Kosarev, M. F. (2008) Osnovy iazycheskogo miroponimaniia: po Sibirskim arkheologo-etnograficheskim materialam [The Basics of Pagan World Outlook: Following Siberian Archaeological and Ethnographic Materials]. Moscow, Slava Publishing Center ; Fort-profi LLC. 416 p. (In Russ.).

Litvinov, V. F. (2011) Kinologiia [Cynology] : A Study Guide for University Students Major 1-75 01 01 Forestry, Specialization 1-75 01 01 02 Forest Hunting Range and Supplementary Cut]. Minsk, Belarusian State Technological University Press. 237 p. (In Russ.).

Loginova, M. On ochen' boialsia sobak [He Was Really Afraid of Dogs]. Pravda Severa, no. 32, 12 March. [online] Available at: [archived in WebCite] (accessed 14.04.2013). (In Russ.).

Lorenz, K. (1970) Koltso tsaria Solomona [King Solomon's Ring]. Moscow, Mir Publ. 209 p. (In Russ.).

Lorenz, K. (1971) Chelovek nakhodit druga [Man Meets Dog]. Moscow, Mir Publ. 168 p. (In Russ.).

Lorenz, K. (1995) Chelovek nakhodit druga [Man Meets Dog]. Moscow, Armada Publ. 393 p. (In Russ.).

Liubov' k volkam [Love for Wolves]. Forum logova [online] Available at: [archived in WebCite] (accessed 22.04.2013). (In Russ.).

Mazover, A. P. (1954) Plemennoe delo v sluzhebnom sobakovodstve [Pedigree Work in Service Dog-breeding]. Moscow, DOSAAF Publ. 184 p. (In Russ.).

Marek, J. (1988) Sobach'ia zvezda Sirius, ili Pokhval'noe slovo sobake [Dog Star Sirius, or A Panegyric to Dog]. Moscow, Raduga Publ. 280 p. (In Russ.).

Marceau, J. (1969) Volk i sobaka [Wolf and Dog]. Nauka i zhizn', no. 3, pp. 138144. (In Russ.).

Marugina, N. I. (2009) Kontsept sobaka kak element russkoi iazykovoi kartiny mir [The Concept Dog as an Element of the Russian Language World View]. Iazyk i kul'tura, no. 2, pp. 1130. (In Russ.).

Mikhailin, V. Yu. (2001) Mezhdu volkom i sobakoi: Geroicheskii diskurs v rannesrednevekovoi i sovetskoi kul'turnyh traditsiiakh [Between Wolf and Dog: A Heroic Discourse in the Early Medieval and Soviet Cultural Traditions]. Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, no. 47, pp. 278320. (In Russ.).

Mowat, F. (1981) Ne krichi: Volki! [Never Cry Wolf]. Moscow, Mir Publ. 408 p. (In Russ.).

O sobake [About Dog] (1991) / ed. by V. S. Varlakov, A. N. Grazhdankina, A. Mikhal'skaia and A. D. Poiarkov. Moscow ; Tashkent, Ulei Publ. 187 p. (In Russ.).

Pavlov, M. P. (1990) Volk [Wolf]. Moscow, Agropromizdat Publ. 351 p. (In Russ.).

Pel't, V. D. (1992) Okhotnik, rybolov, uchenyi (posleslovie) [Hunter, Fisherman, Scientist (Afterword)]. In: Sabaneev L. P. Ryby Rossii: Zhizn' i lovlia (uzhen'e) nashikh presnovodnykh ryb [Fishes of Russia: The Life and Catching (Angling) of Our Freshwater Fishes] : in 2 vols. Moscow, Terra Publ. Vol. 2. P. 536550. (In Russ.).

Polishchuk, F. I. and Trofimenko, A. L. (2007) Kinologiia [Cynology] : A Guide for Tertiary Institutions. Kiev ; Irpen': VTF Perun. 1005 p. (In Russ.).

Pryor, K. (1995) Ne rychite na sobaku! O dressirovke zhivotnykh i liudei [Don't Shoot the Dog! How to Improve Yourself and Others through Behavioral Training]. Moscow, Selena+ Publ. 108 p. (In Russ.).

Thompson Seton, E. (1989) Rasskazy o zhivotnykh [Animals Stories]. St. Petersburg, Detskaia literatura Publ. 128 p. (In Russ.).

Sokolov, V. E. (1979) Sistematika mlekopitaiushchikh [The Systematics of Mammals] : in 3 vols. : A Study Guide. Moscow, Vysshaia shkola Publ. Vol. 3: Otriady: kitoobraznykh, khishchnykh, lastonogikh, trubkozubykh, khobotnykh, damanov, siren, parnokopytnykh, mozolenogikh, neparnokopytnykh [Orders: Cetaceans, Carnivores, Pinnipeds, Aardvarks, Proboscideas, Hyraxes, Sirens, Artiodactyls, Tylopoda, Perissodactyls]. 528 p. (In Russ.).

Sokolova, Z. P. (1972) Kul't zhivotnykh v religiiakh [The Cult of Animals in Religions]. Moscow, Nauka Publ. 215 p. (In Russ.).

Sugrobov, V. Yu. (2004) Volk i okhota na nego [Wolf Hunting]. Moscow, Akvarium-Print LLC. 96 p. (In Russ.).

Fabri, K. E. (2001) Osnovy zoopsikhologii [The Basics of Zoopsychology] : A Guide for Tertiary Institutions. 3rd ed. Moscow, Uchebno-metodicheskii kollektor Psikhologiia. 464 p. (In Russ.).

Khazankovich, Yu. G. (2009) Arkhetip volka v fol'klore i literature. [The Archetype of the Wolf in Folklore and Literature]. Vestnik Tambovskogo universiteta. Seriia: Gumanitarnye nauki, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 177182. (In Russ.).

Khoziaika sobak-volkov, rasterzavshikh rebenka, predstanet pered sudom [The Owner of Dogs-wolves that Have Torn a Child to Pieces will Come to Trial]. (2009) Oreanda. [online] Available at: [archived in WebCite] (accessed 25.04.2013). (In Russ.).

Herriot, J, (1997) O vsekh sozdaniiakh prekrasnykh i udivitel'nykh [All Things Wise and Wonderful]. Moscow, Armada Publ. 425 p. (In Russ.).

Shamarova, S. I. (2012) O svoeobrazii kul'turnogo kontsepta volk [The Peculiarity of the Cultural Concept Wolf]. Vestnik Tsentra mezhdunarodnogo obrazovaniia MGU. Filologiia. Kul'turologiia. Pedagogika. Metodika, no. 3, pp. 7984. (In Russ.).

Shereshevskiy, E. I. (1957). Okhotnich'e sobakovodstvo [Hunting Dog Breeding]. Moscow, Fizkul'tura i sport Publ. 83 p. (In Russ.).

Iaksiargin, L. M. (2007) Zooantropologicheskii kontinuum v mire kul'tury [Zoo and Anthropological Continuum in the World of Culture] : diss. ... Candidate of Science (philology). Nizhny Novgorod. 182 p. (In Russ.).

to top

Moscow University for the Humanities

"Knowledge. Understanding. Skill" No. 4 2021
 The No. 4 2021 of the
Journal "Knowledge.
Understanding. Skill"
 is issued

What kind of higher education will be at the end of the XXI century?
 global and unified for the whole world
 local with the revival of traditions of national educational models
 something else
 there will be no necessity for it in general
The Editorial Board of the Informational Portal for the Humanities
"Knowledge. Understanding. Skill"

The Portal is registered by the Federal Service of Supervision over Observance of Legislation
in Mass Media Sphere and Protection of the Cultural Inheritance.
Registration certificate 77-25026 of the 14th of July, 2006.

   Rambler's Top100

Developed by: "Internet Factory"