Захаров Н. В., Луков Вл. А., Макаров В. С., Гайдин Б. Н. Цифровой Шекспир в России
Abstract ◊ The article presents the results of the work done and new aims for the development of a network of information resources dedicated to Shakespeare and his epoch under the auspices of the Institute of Fundamental and Applied Studies at Moscow University for the Humanities.
Keywords: Shakespeare, Shakespeare in Russia, Shakespeare's contemporaries, Shakespeare encyclopedia, Internet projects, literary history, cultural history, electronic projects, humanities projects.
Аннотация ◊ В статье представлены результаты уже проделанной работы и новые задачи по созданию комплекса информационных ресурсов, посвященных У. Шекспиру и его эпохе, на базе Института фундаментальных и прикладных исследований Московского гуманитарного университета.
Ключевые слова: Шекспир, Шекспир в России, современники Шекспира, шекспировская энциклопедия, интернет-проекты, история литературы, история культуры, электронные проекты, гуманитарные проекты.
Information projects of the Institute of Fundamental and Applied Studies at Moscow University for the Humanities are long-range trends of integration of science and the system of higher education. Since 2004 several information projects have been developed in the Institute. They are aimed at relevant scientific and teacher problems solution. Among them there are a number of projects where Shakespeare and his heritage are special subject matters: “Information and Research Database Russian Shakespeare” (research manager N. V. Zakharov, project was supported by Russian Foundation for the Humanities, grant No. 05-04-12423в); “Information Humanities Portal Knowledge. Understanding. Skill” (2006–2008, research manager Val. A. Lukov, the project is being carried on in a modified form); “French Literature from the Origins to the Beginning of the Newest Period: An Electronic Encyclopaedia” (research manager Vl. A. Lukov, project is being supported by Russian Foundation for the Humanities (grant No. 09-04-12150в); “Electronic Scientific Publication V. G. Belinsky” (research manager B. N. Gaydin, project was supported by Russian Foundation for the Humanities, grant No. 09-04-12145в); “The World of Shakespeare: An Electronic Encyclopaedia” (research manager N. V. Zakharov, project was supported by Russian Foundation for the Humanities, grant No 08-04-12128в); “Information and Research Data-base Shakespeare’s Contemporaries: An Electronic Scientific Publication” (research manager N. V. Zakharov, project was supported by Russian Foundation for the Humanities (grant No. 11-04-12064в).
RESEARCH DATA BASE “RUSSIAN SHAKESPEARE”. In 2005 there was accomplished the following scope of work: typesetting, scanning, text recognition, proof-reading and hypertext markup (10%) of Russian translations from Shakespeare in the total of about 30,000,000 characters, which makes 750 printer’s sheets or 12,000 pages. Selected bibliography of Russian translations and critical works about Shakespeare (over 1,700 items) were composed and arranged. This data was published in 2006–2007.
In 2007 site structuring development was finished as well as digitalization of papers from rare editions of 18th and 19th centuries. Russian translations from Shakespeare and selected bibliography of translations and Shakespeare criticism were published in HTML and PDF format.
The site is presently functioning at www.rus-shake.ru. The research data bank Russian Shakespeare can be attractive to scholars, teachers, theatre workers and to all admirers of Shakespeare.
“THE WORLD OF SHAKESPEARE”: AN ELECTRONIC ENCYCLOPEDIA. The project is an original part of a complex research on Shakespeare’s heritage and its global significance (www.world-shake.ru). Its ultimate goal is to develop, implement, and publish an electronic dictionary “The World of Shakespeare: an Electronic Encyclopedia” as an information web resource.
The project aims at the solution of scientific problems that include thorough comprehension and all-round representation of the importance of Shakespeare and his work for Russian culture and the rest of the modern world. The urgency of this scientific problem consists in an absolute necessity to systematize the extensive data about the penetration of Shakespeare into the world-wide cultural thesaurus, with a view to deeper understanding of Russian culture. The concretization of the problem consists in revealing the uniqueness of The World of Shakespeare and enhancement of the significance of the Russian tradition in the perception and research on the British playwright’s heritage in the world of Shakespeare studies.
SHAKESPEARE'S CONTEMPORARIES. In Russian cultural perception, Shakespeare has always overshadowed his literary contemporaries. The project “Shakespeare's Contemporaries” (www.around-shake.ru) is aimed at closing this gap.
Russian audience is in urgent need of a resource which would bring together the available information on Shakespeare's contemporaries — Englishmen living in the latter half of the 16th and early 17th century — Elizabethans, Jacobeans, authors, businessmen, courtiers, theatre and university men.
Ultimately, we see our project as a community of scholars, translators and all those interested in this historical period. We are building a Russian-language electronic database of what is already available among translations, scholarship, dramatic adaptations, filmographies and biographies of Shakespeare's contemporaries. In the recent tumultuous decades of change, many important translations and pieces of scholarship have gone unnoticed, provincial universities do not have access to many of newly-published articles and monographs, Russian readers do not have an opportunity to learn about new developments in the Western, especially English-speaking, scholar community. Anti-Stratfordianism, “great-game” style conspiracy theories and pop scholarship are starting to monopolize their hold on the audience, especially students and professionals. An electronic database, freely available online, will become a source of scholar-vetted and fact-proven information on early modern English literature and culture.
Our project will include several types of resources:
1. Personalia articles on early modern English authors, actors, scholars, etc., as well as their Russian translators and scholars.
2. The translations proper, organized by name of author and translators. We are digitally republishing some works already in public domain, as well as later translations — with express permission from translators or their heirs. A good deal of translations, especially those from lesser-known authors, will be specially commissioned to best translators available and vetted for quality.
3. History of how the works of Shakespeare's contemporaries were adapted on the Russian stage, in music and visual arts.
4. Shakespeare's contemporaries in Russian and global culture — a series of scholarly articles, submitted by the authors or chosen by the project's team on the basis of their importance, with permission from the authors.
5. Theory articles, summarizing and generalizing the main aspects of influence Shakespeare's contemporaries have had on Russian poetic, dramatic, visual, musical and scholarly cultures.
6. Annotated bibliographies of most important scholarly works in Russian and English, with annotations written by scholars and submitted by readers.
7. The news section will include information about upcoming conferences, CFPs, new performances, translations, grants, contests, thesis presentations, etc., both inside and outside Russia.
8. We are also going to set up and maintain a users' forum, discussion groups on all major social networks, a collection of useful links, and an online form to provide consultations for students and readers.
The project team (led by N. V. Zakharov) includes a number of Russian Shakespearian scholars, specialists in the fields of English and Russian literatures and languages, early modern and modern literature, history and culture. Vl. A. Lukov has authored a large number of publications, monographs and articles that cover the history of the foreign literature from the origins till our times. V. S. Makarov is an expert in the English literature of the 17th century, member of several creative teams in the “Literary Memorials” series — Chaucer, John Donne, etc.). V. A. Rogatin's research is devoted to the creative heritage of Shakespeare’s contemporaries, particularly to the poetry of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, Ben Johnson and many others. V. N. Zabaluev specializes in the sphere of the English literature of the Renaissance and Baroque (16th and 17th century English masques from Sidney to Milton). B. N. Gaydin is the author of publications on the Shakespearians' epoch and the Russian reception of “Hamlet”, collaborator and head of a number of information projects. K. N. Kislitsyn is an expert in the field of comparative literary studies and a participant of several information projects. I. I. Lisovich specializes in the field of cultural studies, the history of the Early Modern poetry and the history of science. A. G. Volkova is an expert in Early Modern English poetry, in particular in the works of John Donne and George Herbert. L. M. Komarova is a specialist in the field of librarianship. Other scholars and specialists have been involved in the project as well.
We aim to build a project similar to “Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Shakespeare”, with a strong scholarly slant and attention to minute details. Our team's two previous projects, “Russian Shakespeare” (www.rus-shake.ru) and “The World of Shakespeare: An Electronic Encyclopedia” (www.world-shake.ru), have been focused on the works, personality and adaptations of Shakespeare. Placing Shakespeare now in the context of complex developments in early modern English literature, culture and history, we hope our project will help the promotion of scholarship in Russia as well as strengthen the links between Russian academic and artistic communities and their English-speaking counterparts.
The project was supported by the Russian Foundation for the Humanities, grant No. 11-04-12064в.
The preliminary results of the information projects’ implementation were summed in the reports on international conferences “Higher Education for the 21st Century” (1st–6th conferences), “Shakespeare Readings” (2006–2012), on scientific symposiums and seminars “Shakespeare Studies” (2005–2012), “Thesaurus Analysis of World Culture” (2005–2012). Since 2009 the information on the projects has been included in the work of international Shakespearean conferences and seminars in the USA, the Great Britain, and in other countries. The existing scientific crew allots a task to create a complex net of liberal projects with a wide degree of variation that will be deterred from stagnation by dint of a number of humanitarian constants’ elaboration. Among these constants there is a magnificent figure of Shakespeare.
Zakharov Nikolay Vladimirovich, Ph.D., the vice-director of the Institute of Fundamental and Applied Studies at Moscow University for the Humanities, full-member of the International Academy of Science (IAS, Innsbruck, Austria) — academic secretary of the Russian Division of the IAS, academic secretary of the Shakespeare Committee of the RAS. Tel.: +7 (499) 374-75-95.
Lukov Vladimir Andreevich, Doctor of Science (philology), professor, director of the Theory and History of Culture Center of the Institute of Fundamental and Applied Studies at Moscow University for the Humanities, honoured scientist of the Russian Federation, full-member of the International Academy of Science (Innsbruck, Austria) and the International Teacher’s Training Academy of Science, member of the Shakespeare Committee of the RAS. Tel.: +7 (499) 374-75-95.
Луков Владимир Андреевич — доктор филологических наук, профессор, директор Центра теории и истории культуры Института фундаментальных и прикладных исследований Московского гуманитарного университета, заслуженный деятель науки РФ, академик Международной академии наук (IAS, Инсбрук, Австрия), академик Международной академии наук педагогического образования, член Шекспировской комиссии РАН. Тел.: +7 (499) 374-75-95.
Gaydin Boris Nikolaevich, Candidate of Science (philosophy), the vice-director of the Theory and History of Culture Center of the Institute of Fundamental and Applied Studies at Moscow University for the Humanities. Tel.: +7 (499) 374-59-30.