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Main page / "Knowledge. Understanding. Skill" Journal / Contents / 2014 / No. 1

Shilov N. A. The Reasons of the Formation of the Russian Centralized State

(Moscow University for the Humanities)

Abstract ♦ The article analyzes a variety of reasons for the formation of the Russian centralized state in 14th16th centuries. The author notes that except for the external reasons (the growing power of the Moscow princes, the expansion of the territory of the Moscow principality, a favorable geographical position of Moscow) there were not less significant hidden, internal reasons, including ideological ones. The author considers the latter to be the primary ones. They contributed to an intermittent transition from the form of early feudal state to the regime of centralized monarchy.

Very early under the influence of the Tatar-Mongol yoke, the democratic element represented by the most ancient tribal institution, the veche, lost its crucial importance in the public life. The advisory body of the knyaz (prince) the military druzhina (retinue) also undergone a dramatic change; it was abolished. There was a gradual "settling" of druzhina on the land. Thus, the power of the Moscow princes increased. The transfer of the jarlig for the great reign of Vladimir also contributed to this empowerment in 1327.

Another reason was the legitimization of the princely power in the society through the support of the Orthodox Church. At first, the Moscow princes received support from the boyarity (nobility), which was being constantly consolidated by the inclusion of former appanage princes into their milieu. However, thereafter the strengthened nobility posed a serious threat to the authoritarian tsars throne. The clergy took strong and tenable positions near the Orthodox Russian monarch. Rus adopted Christianity from Byzantium. Russia had been represented one of the dioceses under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople for a long time. Therefore, many traditions were adopted from Byzantium.

Moreover, new notions about the power transferred to the Russian soil were very important for the centralization of power. Thus, the ruler should be understood as one man the knyaz, the Caesar. His power was considered divinely instituted and everyone had to obey him. This new ideology was widely publicized in the original literature as well as in numerous translated compilations.

Keywords: the Moscow principality, the Russian state, government institutions, the boyarity, the nobility, the tsar, the oprichnina, the Orthodox Church, the cen-tralization of power, centralized state.


Shilov Nikolay Andreevich, postgraduate student of the History Department, Moscow University for the Humanities. Postal address: 5 Yunosti St., B. 3, Moscow, Russian Federation, 111395. Tel.: +7 (499) 374-55-81. E-mail: historymosgy@mail.ru. Research adviser Doctor of Science (history), associate professor O. A. Plotnikova.

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Citation: Shilov, N. A. (2014) [The Reasons of the Formation of the Russian Centralized State]. Znanie. Ponimanie. Umenie, no. 1, pp. 295301. (In Russ.).

Submission date: 7.12.2013.

RUSSIAN VERSION


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