The journal (print)
is indexed in:

Russian Science Citation Index

Ulrichs Periodicals Directory

CrossRef

iteFactor

The online version
is indexed in:

Russian Science Citation Index

Orphus system
Main page / "Knowledge. Understanding. Skill" Journal / Contents / 2014 / No. 1

Yudin B. G. Scientific Cognition of Human Being and Values

The article was prepared with the support from Russian Foundation for the Humanities (grant No. 13-33-11120).


(The Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Moscow University for the Humanities)

Abstract ♦ Complex human study faces a methodological problem of the overcoming of rigid dividing lines that separate the approach to human being as a natural creature, on the one hand, and as a substantially supernatural phenomenon, on the other hand. This problem cannot be solved by the determination of the borders between natural and human sciences. The author conceives that the person stands out among all possible objects of cognition from the perspective of values. This axiological foundation becomes the initial for the differentiation of two types of scientific cognition: the object of one of them is human being; the object of the other is everything that does not relate to the human kind. Consequently, both the cognition of human being as a natural, biological creature and its cognition as a supernatural creature (social, cultural, spiritual, etc.) belong to the first type. Thus, the interaction between the biological and the social is considered as something that is evident, significant and realized not in some highlighted points of the continuum of human existence, but over its whole duration. This means that their interaction can be discovered (if it is desired and made in a certain attitude of mind) in any point of this existence.

Further, the author examines two examples of a situation when the consideration of such an interaction is extremely important. The first one relates to the sphere of biomedical investigations where a distinction between human-being-in-general and human-being-as-test-person appears. It is shown that Japanese research center Unit 731 was developing biological weapons during World War II and applying them to the prisoners called maruta (logs in Japanese). This was deteriorating the value of the test persons as humans. The second example is connected with the dual attitude to the application of placebo technology in biomedical investigations.

Keywords: human being, human sciences, values, biomedical investigations, the biological and the social.


Yudin Boris Grigorievich, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Science (philosophy), professor, chief researcher at the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, director of the Bioethics Center of the Institute of Fundamental and Applied Studies, Moscow University for the Humanities, full member of the International Academy of Science (Innsbruck, Austria). Postal address: 14 Volkhonka St., B. 5, Moscow, Russian Federation, 119991. Tel.: +7 (499) 697-90-67. E-mail: byudin@yandex.ru

Download

Citation: Yudin, B. G. (2014) Nauchnoe poznanie cheloveka i tsennosti [Scientific Cognition of Human Being and Values]. Znanie. Ponimanie. Umenie, no. 1, pp. 3549. (In Russ.).

Submission date: 10.12.2013.

RUSSIAN VERSION


REFERENCE

Akiiama, Kh. (1958) Osobyi otriad 731 [Special Unit 731]. Moscow, Publishing House of Foreign Literature. 152 p. (In Russ.).

Arendt, Kh. (2008) Banal'nost' zla. Eikhman v Ierusalime [The Banality of Evil. Eichmann in Jerusalem]. Moscow, Evropa Publ. 424 p. (In Russ.).

Dil'tei, V. (1996) Opisatel'naia psikhologiia [Descriptive Psychology]. St. Petersburg : Aleteiia Publ. 160 p. (In Russ.).

Lukov, Val. A., Lukov, Vl. A. (2013) Tezaurusy II: Tezaurusnyi podkhod k ponimaniiu cheloveka i ego mira [Thesauri II: The Thesaurus Approach to the Conceptualization of the Person and His/Her World]. Moscow, The National Institute of Business Press. 640 p. (In Russ.).

Materialy sudebnogo protsessa po delu byvshikh voennosluzhashchikh iaponskoi armii, obviniaemykh v podgotovke i primenenii bakteriologicheskogo oruzhiia [Records of the Trial of the Former Military Personnel of the Japanese Army Accused of the Preparation and Use of Bacteriological Weapons]. (1950) Moscow, State Publishers of Political Literature. 540 p. (In Russ.).

Morimura, S. (1983). Kukhnia d'iavola [Devils Kitchen]. Moscow, Progress Publ. (In Russ.).

Raginskii, M. Yu. (1985) Militaristy na skam'e podsudimykh (po materialam Tokiiskogo i Khabarovskogo protsessov) [Militarists on the Dock (Adapted from the Records of the Tokyo and Khabarovsk Legal Trials]. Moscow, Iuridicheskaia literatura Publ. 365 p. (In Russ.).

Fuko, M. (1998) Rozhdenie kliniki [The Birth of the Clinic]. Moscow, Smysl Publ. 310 p. (In Russ.).

Kharre, R. (2006) Konstruktsionizm i osnovaniia znaniia [Constructionism and the Foundations of Knowledge]. Voprosy filosofii, no. 11, pp. 94-103. (In Russ.).

Yudin B. G. (1986) Metodologicheskii analiz kak napravlenie izucheniia nauki [The Methodological Analysis as a Trend in the Study of Science]. Moscow, Nauka Publ. 260 p. (In Russ.).

Yudin, B. G. (2004) Biologicheskoe sushchestvovanie cheloveka: kul'turnye aspekty (nachalo) [Biological Existence of Human Being: Cultural Aspects (the beginning)]. Znanie. Ponimanie. Umenie, no. 1, pp. 87-93. (In Russ.).

Yudin, B. G. (2005) Biologicheskoe sushchestvovanie cheloveka: kul'turnye aspekty (okonchanie) [Biological Existence of Human Being: Cultural Aspects (the ending)]. Znanie. Ponimanie. Umenie, no. 1, pp. 79-85. (In Russ.).

Yudin, B. G. (2009) Iz istorii biomeditsinskikh issledovanii na cheloveke: Khabarovskii protsess 1949 g. [From the History of Biomedical Human Subject Research: The Khabarovsk Trial of 1949]. Voprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki, no. 4, pp. 107-125. (In Russ.).

Bull, J. P. (1959) The Historical Development of Clinical Therapeutic Trials. Journal of Chronic Diseases, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 218-248. [online] Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0021968159900049 (accessed 12.11.2013).

Dower, J. W. (1986) War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War. New York, Pantheon Books. xii, 399 p.

Kennedy, W. P. (1961) The Nocebo Reaction. Medical World, vol. 95, September, pp. 203-205.

Yudin, B. G. (2010) Research on Humans at the Khabarovsk War Crimes Trial: A Historical and Ethical Examination. In: Japans Wartime Medical Atrocities. Comparative Inquiries in Science, History, and Ethics / ed. by Jing-Bao Nie et al. London ; New York, Routledge, pp. 59-78.



to top


Moscow University for the Humanities


"Knowledge. Understanding. Skill" No. 4 2021
 The No. 4 2021 of the
Journal "Knowledge.
Understanding. Skill"
 is issued


What kind of higher education will be at the end of the XXI century?
 global and unified for the whole world
 local with the revival of traditions of national educational models
 something else
 there will be no necessity for it in general
The Editorial Board of the Informational Portal for the Humanities
"Knowledge. Understanding. Skill"

The Portal is registered by the Federal Service of Supervision over Observance of Legislation
in Mass Media Sphere and Protection of the Cultural Inheritance.
Registration certificate 77-25026 of the 14th of July, 2006.

   Rambler's Top100

Developed by: "Internet Factory"