The journal (print)
is indexed in:

Russian Science Citation Index

Ulrichs Periodicals Directory

CrossRef

iteFactor

The online version
is indexed in:

Russian Science Citation Index

Orphus system
Main page / "Knowledge. Understanding. Skill" Journal / Contents / 2014 / No. 2

Makarevich E. F. The Mystery of The Living Corpse for Political Technologists

(Moscow University for the Humanities)

Abstract ◊ Defeated by the Allied troops in 1945, Hitlerite Germany was divided into occupation zones governed by respective military administrations of the winners of World War II. The U.S. military administration’s policy designed for the German population was based on culture and arts. Their political technologists developed a theater program that, inter alia, listed plays not recommended for staging at German theaters. Among those plays was “The Living Corpse” by Leo Tolstoy.

The article discusses the reasons why the U.S. administration did not venture to authorize the staging of this play of the world classical writer. Those were mostly social and moral reasons. According to the American political technologists, Tolstoys play was incompatible with the Germans mental and psychological state in that period and with the German recovery program, which was developed in accordance with the plan of U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall.

The U.S. political technologists stumbled over the problems posed by Leo Tolstoy in his play: the machinery of law and individual rights; what the human being is; and money as evil and the meaning of life. Those problems emphasized the issue of the Germans guilt for the crimes of fascism and the issue of punishment for those crimes where the court of justice played the main role. Following Tolstoys logic, the court of justice as such should not be immoral. However, it was the morality of the court of justice that the Germans doubted. So, according to the political technologists, the play could strengthen their false doubts. Tolstoy raises the issue of how the human being combines divine and evil natures and the issue of how fluid a person can be. Pondering over these issues, the Americans tried to combine humans fluidity with the Germans behavior. In addition, the play could provoke the Germans into thinking about the cruelty of the winners; in this case, the cruelty of the Americans and the British who had organized atrocious and inhuman bombardments of German cities. On the other hand, the play could give rise to thoughts of the phenomenon of Russian people who had conquered fascism and had come to Germany. However, the most alarming factor was the plays antimarket mood.

The play, whose main character states that money is filth and evil, involuntarily stood in the way of the Marshall Plan for Germany. This was acutely sensed by the psychological warfare experts of the U.S. military administration at that time. The mystery of this play is studied in the context of the mood prevailing among the German public in that period.

Keywords: L. N. Tolstoy, court of justice, individual rights, justice, money and the meaning of life, Nuremberg trials, complexity of human being, mystery of the Russian soul, market person, individuality and individualism, theater as a semiotic system.


Makarevich Eduard Fyodorovich, Doctor of Science (sociology), professor of the Philosophy, Culturology and Politology Department, Moscow University for the Humanities. Postal address: 5 Yunosti St., Moscow, Russian Federation, 111395. Tel.: +7 (499) 374-55-11. E-mail: edward.makarevich@mail.ru

Download

Citation: Makarevich E. F. The Mystery of The Living Corpse for Political Technologists // Znanie. Ponimanie. Umenie. 2014. 2. S. 26–40.

RUSSIAN VERSION


BIBLIOGRAPHY (TRANSLITERATION)

Goldenweiser, A. B. (1959) Vblizi Tolstogo [Close to Tolstoy]. Moscow, Goslitizdat Publ. 487 p. (In Russ.).

Grass, G. (2008) Lukovitsa pamiati [Peeling the Onion]. Moscow, Inostranka Publ. 592 p. (In Russ.).

Literaturnoye nasledstvo [Literary Heritage]. Vol. 37/38. L. N. Tolstoy. (1939) Moscow, The USSR Academy of Sciences Press. Book 2. 775 p. (In Russ.).

Lotman, Yu. M. (2002) Stat'i po semiotike kultury i iskusstva [Articles on the Semiotics of Culture and Arts]. Saint Petersburg, Akademicheskii proekt Publ. 544 . (In Russ.).

Raginskii, M. Yu. (1986) Niurnberg: pered sudom istorii. Vospominaniia uchastnika niurnbergskogo protsessa [Nuremberg: Before the Bar of History. Memoirs of a Participant in the Nuremberg Trials]. Moscow, Politizdat Publ. 207 p. (In Russ.).

Saunders, F. S. (2013) TsRU i mir iskusstv: kul'turnyi front kholodnoi voiny [The Cultural Cold War: The CIA and the World of Arts and Letters] / transl. from English. Moscow, Kuchkovo pole Publ. 422 p. (In Russ.).

Tolstoy, L. N. (1935) Polnoe sobranie sochinenii: v 90 t. [Complete Works in 90 Volumes]. Moscow, Goslitizdat Publ. Vol. 54. Dnevnik, zapisnye knizhki i otdel'nye zapisi 19001903 [Diary, Notebooks and Entries of 19001903]. 753 p. (In Russ.).

Tolstoy, L. N. (1952) Polnoe sobranie sochinenii: v 90 t. [Complete Works in 90 Volumes]. Moscow, Goslitizdat Publ. Vol. 34. Proizvedeniia 19001903 gg. [Works of 19001903]. 629 p. (In Russ.).

Tolstoy, L. N. (1953) Polnoe sobranie sochinenii: v 90 t. [Complete Works in 90 Volumes]. Moscow, Goslitizdat Publ. Vol. 53. Dnevniki i zapisnye knizhki 18951899 [Diaries and Notebooks of 18951899]. 563 p. (In Russ.).

Tolstoy, L. N. (1984) Sobranie sochinenii: v 12 t. [Collected works in 12 Volumes]. Moscow, Pravda Publ. Vol. XII. Proizvedeniia 18851902 gg. [Works of 18851902]. 511 p. (In Russ.).

40 let znamenitogo interv'iu Karla Iaspersa «Massovye ubiistva ne mogut byt' opravdany za davnost'iu» : Beseda K. Iaspersa s R. Augshteinom (zhurnal Shpigel', 1965 g.) [40 Years of the Famous Interview of Karl Jaspers Mass Murders Cannot Be Justified After All This Time : A Conversation between K. Jaspers and R. Augstein (Der Spiegel, 1965)] (2005) Nezavisimyi psikhiatricheskii zhurnal, no. 1. [online] Available at: http://www.npar.ru/journal/2005/1/jaspers.htm [archived in WebCite] (accessed 4.11.2013). (In Russ.).



to top


Moscow University for the Humanities


"Knowledge. Understanding. Skill" No. 4 2021
 The No. 4 2021 of the
Journal "Knowledge.
Understanding. Skill"
 is issued


What kind of higher education will be at the end of the XXI century?
 global and unified for the whole world
 local with the revival of traditions of national educational models
 something else
 there will be no necessity for it in general
The Editorial Board of the Informational Portal for the Humanities
"Knowledge. Understanding. Skill"

The Portal is registered by the Federal Service of Supervision over Observance of Legislation
in Mass Media Sphere and Protection of the Cultural Inheritance.
Registration certificate 77-25026 of the 14th of July, 2006.

   Rambler's Top100

Developed by: "Internet Factory"