Abstract ♦ The article provides a comparative analysis of philosophical categories covering both the objective world and existentials which express the interior condition of a person.
The categories which reflect the objective world are the universal one of “being”, “things existent” as a separate variety of being, and the categories indicating the types, properties and qualities of things — “idea”, ”matter”, “movement”, “space”, “time”, “cause”, “interaction” and some others.
We have studied three existentials — ”existence”, “fear” and “meaning of life”. The latter two, being universal, also form a logical pair. The structure of the existence is formed by the change from “fear” to “meaning of life” via more particularized conditions.
This sheds some light on the methodological difference between classical rationalism and existentialism, founded respectively on abstraction and particularization. These methods involve two opposite directions of thinking depending on whether they direct the thinking subject towards interaction with an object or another subject. It is through personality development that a change happens in the condition of existence, a change expressed in existentials, happens during occurs during development of personality.
Some existentials may be linked to the spheres of ontology and epistemology, but do not themselves become ontological and epistemological concepts. The most universal existentials can transfer categories of classical philosophy into a sphere of their own: thus, “being” corresponds to “existence”, and “things existent” — to “existential”.
As it is impossible to objectify existence, issues with its structuring arise. They can be overcome through language, which distinctly structured per se, regardless of where it is used.
We postulate that man’s self-reflection by means of existentials does not lead to loss of integrity, as it happens when categories of classical philosophy are used.
Timokhin Nikolai Valerievich, Postgraduate Student, Department of Philosophy, Politology and Culturology, Moscow University for the Humanities. Postal address: 5 Yunosti St., Moscow, Russian Federation, 111395. Tel.: +7 (499) 374-51-51. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Research advisor: Doctor of Philosophy, Professor A. E. Voskoboinikov.
Citation: Timokhin, N. V. (2014) Filosofskie kategorii i ekzistentsialy: sravnitel'nyi analiz [Philosophical Categories and Existentials: Comparison Analysis]. Znanie. Ponimanie. Umenie, no. 4, pp. 309–315. (In Russ.).
Bol’nov, O. F. (1999) Filosofiia ekzistentsializma [The Philosophy of Existentialism]. St. Peterburg, Lan’ Publ. 224 p. (In Russ.).
Voskoboinikov, A. E. (2013) Universal’nye tsennosti v sovremennom mnogolikom mire [Universal Values in the Modern Multifaceted World]. In: Sovremennoe sostoianie kul’tury i obshchestva: osobennosti i perspektivy razvitiia Rossii [The Current State of Culture and Society: Features and Prospects of Russia’s Development]. Moscow, Moscow University for the Humanities Publ. 364 p. Pp. 21–28. (In Russ.).
Girenok, F. I. (2012) Absurd i rech: antropologiia voobrazhaemogo [The Absurd and Speech: An Anthropology of the Imaginary]. Moscow, Akademicheskii Proekt. 237 p. (In Russ.).
Kasavina, N. A. (2013) Ekzistentsial’nyi opyt: perezhivanie puti i stanovlenie structury [Existential Experience: Experiencing the Way and the Becoming of Structure]. Voprosy filosofii, no. 7, pp. 63–72. (In Russ.).
Kudriashova, T. B. (2005) Ontologiia iazykov poznaniia [An Ontology of the Languages of Cognition] : diss. … Doctor of Philosophy. Ivanovo. 370 p. (In Russ.).
Plesner, G. (2004) Stupeni organicheskogo i chelovek: Vvedenie v filosofskuiu antropologiiu [The Levels of the Organic and Human Being. Introduction to Philosophical Anthropology]. Moscow, ROSSPEN Publ. 368 p. (In Russ.).
Razinov, Yu. A. (1999) Poniatiia kategorii i ekzistentsiala v filosofii M. Khaideggera [The Notions of Category and the Existential in the Philosophy of M. Heidegger]. Vestnik Samarskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, no. 1 (11), pp. 57–67. (In Russ.).
Heidegger, M. (1997) Bytie i vremia [Being and Time]. Moscow, Ad marginem Publ. 241 p. (In Russ.).
Heidegger, M. (2013) Bytie i vremia [Being and Time]. Moscow, Akademicheskii proekt Publ. 447 p. (In Russ.).