Abstract ♦ The article discusses the implementation of the fundamental ideas of the historical group of “Eurasian” intellectuals; ideas which played an important role in the formation of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU). Unlike the Russian émigré thinkers who mainly focused on such issues as the place of Eurasia in the world history or Eurasia as a civilizational phenomenon, their followers — organizers of the Eurasian movement, both theorists and practitioners — were driven by the worldwide trends of the historical process (globalization, Westernization, Orientalization, integration, etc.) and have focused on political and socioeconomic issues.
It has been stated that politicians from Western Europe also showed a certain interest towards Eurasianism as an ontological and political phenomenon. For instance, after World War II, President de Gaulle was inspired by the idea of “the Greater Europe”, from Dublin to Vladivostok. His practical work resonated with the research of Karl Haushofer, the famous German geopolitical theorist, who developed the fundamental concept of the Kontinentalblok covering the whole great continent of Eurasia.
The article investigates the integrational processes on the post-Soviet territory, starting from the rise interstate associations — the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the Customs Union, the Eurasian Economic Community to the Eurasian Economic Union.
The CIS appeared to be a vague interstate union with a disrupted single socio-economic complex, unsustainable national economies and diverging legislations. Gradually, the idea of integration started to shape in the organizational and legal sense. In 1996 the Customs Union was founded, then consisting of the Russian Federation, the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Republic of Belarus. It was followed by an agreement on the Common Free Economic Zone concluded in 1999. The union state of Russia and Belarus was also established. In 2000, upon the initiative of N.A. Nazarbayev, the Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEc) was founded. Thus, a number of socioeconomic and political preconditions made setting up the Eurasian Economic Union possible. The corresponding agreement was signed on May 29, 2014 by Nursultan Nazarbayev, Vladimir Putin and Alexander Lukashenko.
Thus, the creation of a new integration association on the Eurasian continent is based on civilizational, economic, social and cultural traditions of the peoples of the region — traditions which have been around for a number of centuries.
Korolev Anatoly Akimovich, Doctor of History, Professor, Department of History, Moscow University for the Humanities; Honoured Scientist of the Russian Federation. Postal address: 5 Yunosti St., Moscow, Russian Federation, 111395. Tel.: +7 (499) 374-55-81. E-mail:
Citation: Korolev, A. À. (2015) Evraziistvo: ot idei k sovremennoi praktike [Eurasianism: From ideas to contemporary practice]. Znanie. Ponimanie. Umenie, no. 1, pp. 38–52. DOI: 10.17805/zpu.2015.1.4 (In Russ.).
Aksiuchits, V. (2002) Evraziiskii vybor grozit Rossii stagnatsiei i raspadom [Russia faces stagnation and decay due to its Eurasian choice]. Nezavisimaia gazeta. June 5. [online] Available at: http://www.ng.ru/ideas/2002-06-05/11_ideology.html [archived in WebCite] (accessed 5.06.2013). (In Russ.).
Gumilev, L. N. (1992) Ot Rusi k Rossii: ocherki etnicheskoi istorii [From Rus’ to Russia: Essays of ethnic history]. Moscow, Ekopros Publ. 336 p. (In Russ.).
Gumilev, L. N. (1993) Ritmy Evrazii: epohi i tsivilizatsii [Rhythms of Eurasia: epochs and civilizations]. Moscow, Ekopros Publ. 576 p. (In Russ.).
Gumilev, L. N. (1994) Chernaia legenda: Druz'ia i nedrugi Velikoi stepi [The Black legend: Friends and foes of the Great Steppe]. Moscow, Ekopros Publ. 624 p. (In Russ.).
Dugin, A. G. (2004) Proekt “Evrazia” [The Eurasia Project]. Moscow, Eksmo Publ. ; Iauza Publ. 512 p. (In Russ.).
Dugin, A. G. (2006) Parallel'naia politologia Zhana Parvulesko [Parallel political science of Jean Parvulesco]. In: Parvulesco, J. Putin i Evraziiskaia imperiia [Putin and Eurasian empire]. St. Petersburg, Amfora Publ. Pp. 438–445. (In Russ.).
Evraziistvo: istoki, kontseptsiia, real'nost' [Eurasianism: origins, concept, reality] (2014) : On the 20th anniversary of the speech by N.A. Nazarbayev at Lomonosov Moscow State University, March 29, 1994 / ed. by M.S. Meier, V.A. Mikhailov and Zh.S. Syzdykova. Moscow, Pablis Publ. 744 p. (In Russ.).
Kortunov, S. V. (2006) Evraziistvo: natsional'naia ideia ili khimera? [Eurasianism: national idea or a chimera?]. Zolotoi Lev, no. 77–78. [online] Available at: http://www.zlev.ru/77_130.htm [archived in WebCite] (accessed 4.01.2013). (In Russ.).
Krest'ianinov, V. (2012) Mozhno li pobedit' v novoi kholodnoi voine [Is it possible to win the new Cold War]. Argumenty nedeli, no. 49 (341), December 20. [online] Available at: http://argumenti.ru/politics/n370/221223 [archived in WebCite] (accessed 20.12.2012). (In Russ.).
Chiesa, G. (2006) Voina imperii: Vostok — Zapad [War of empires: East — West]. Moscow, Eksmo Publ. 320 p. (In Russ.).
Lukashenko uveren, chto Rossiiu ne zamenit ni odna strana mira [Lukashenko is sure that Russia cannot be replaced by any country in the world]. (2014) RIA Novosti, December 30. [online] Available at: http://ria.ru/world/20141230/1040921832.html [archived in WebCite] (accessed 30.12.2014). (In Russ.).
Nazarbayev, N. A. (1991) Bez pravykh i levykh [Without the rightwingers and the left]. Moscow, Molodaia gvardiia. 254 p. (In Russ.).
Nazarbayev, N. A. (1992) Strategia stanovlenia i razvitiia Kazakhstana kak suverennogo gosudarstva [The strategy of the formation and development of Kazakhstan as a sovereign state]. Alma-Ata, Dәu³r Publ. 56 p. (In Russ.).
Nazarbayev, N. A. (1994a) Evraziiskoe prostranstvo: integratsionnyi potentsial i ego realizatsiia [Eurasian space: the integration potential and its realization]. Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan Publ. 175 p. (In Russ.).
Nazarbayev, N. A. (1994b) Rynok i sotsial'no-ekonomicheskoe razvitie [The market and socio-economic development]. Moscow, Ekonomika Publ. 495 p. (In Russ.).
Nazarbayev N. A. (1996a) Pyat' let nezavisimosti [Five years of independence.] Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan Publ. 624 p. (In Russ.).
Nazarbayev, N. A. (1996b) Strategiia resursosberezheniia i perekhod k rynku [The strategy of resource-saving and the transition to a market economy]. Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan Publ. 637 p. (In Russ.).
Nazarbayev, N. A. (1997) Kazakhstan-2030. Protsvetanie, bezopasnost' i uluchshenie blagosostoianiia vsekh kazakhstantsev [Kazakhstan-2030. Prosperity, security and the welfare of all Kazakhstanis]. Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan Publ. 96 p. (In Russ.).
Okunev, I. Yu. (2013) Vneshniaia politika dlia bol'shinstva? Novoe izmerenie geopoliticheskogo koda Rossii [The foreign policy for the majority? A new dimension of Russia’s geopolitical code]. Rossiia v global'noi politike, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 40–48. (In Russ.).
Panasik, Yu. P. (2008) Instrumental'nyi podkhod. Mekhanizmy realizatsii interesov SShA na evraziiskom prostranstve [The instrumental approach. Mechanisms for implementing US interests in Eurasia]. Nezavisimaia gazeta, October 28. [online] Available at: http://www.ng.ru/stsenarii/2008-10-28/11_podhod.html [archived in WebCite] (accessed 28.10.2008). (In Russ.).
Panfilova, V., (2013) Astana shlet Moskve signal. Oppozitsiia Kazakhstana nastaivaet na vykhode strany iz Tamozhennogo soiuza [Astana sends a signal to Moscow. The Kazakh opposition insists on the withdrawal from the Customs Union]. Nezavisimaia gazeta, March 19. [online] Available at: http://www.ng.ru/cis/2013-03-19/6_astana.html [archived in WebCite] (accessed 19.03.2013). (In Russ.).
Panfilova, V. (2014a) Evraziiskii soiuz mozhet stat' mostom mezhdu Evropoi i Kitaem [The Eurasian Union can serve as a bridge between Europe and China]. Nezavisimaia gazeta, May 29. [online] Available at: http://www.ng.ru/cis/2014-05-29/1_soyuz.html [archived in WebCite] (accessed 29.05.2014). (In Russ.).
Panfilova ,V. (2014c) Soiuz trekh evraziitsev [The union of the three Eurasians]. Nezavisimaia gazeta, May 30. [online] Available at: http://www.ng.ru/cis/2014-05-30/2_soyuz.html [archived in WebCite] (accessed 30.05.2014). (In Russ.).
Parvulesko, J. (2006) Putin i Evraziyskaia imperia [Putin and the Eurasian empire] : a collection of articles / transl. from French by V. Karpets ; ed. by A. G. Dugin. St. Petersburg, Amfora Publ. 447 p. (In Russ.).
Po dannym VTsIOMa, 70% rossiian polozhitel'no otnositsia k sozdaniiu EAES [According to the All-Russian Public Opinion Research Center, 70% of Russians have a positive attitude towards the Establishment of the Eurasian Economic Union] (2014) Evraziiskii kommunikatsionnyi tsentr [Eurasian Communication Center]. July 3. [online] Available at: http://eurasiancenter.ru/newsecc/20140703/1003570636.html [archived in WebCite] (accessed 3.07.2014). (In Russ.).
Popadieva, T. (2013) Yuri Kofner — novyi Riurik? [Yuri Kofner — a new Rurik?]. Nasha molodezh', no. 2, pp. 22–23. (In Russ.).
Seifi, G. (2008) Russkaia ideiia nachala XX veka [Russian idea of the early 20th century]. Vestnik Rossiiskogo filosofskogo obshchestva, no. 1 (45), pp. 135–137. (In Russ.).
Florovskii, G. V. (1995) Evraziiskii soblazn [The Eurasian temptation]. Mir Rossii — Evrazia [World of Russia — Eurasia]. Moscow, Vysshaia shkola Publ. 399 p. Pp. 354–385. (In Russ.).